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Archive: GRIDS Center Newsletter

Current

October 2004

April 29, 2003

November 4, 2002

July 8, 2002
 

April 29, 2003

The following news about distributed computing is from the Grid Research, Integration, Deployment and Support Center (GRIDS), part of the National Science Foundation Middleware Initiative (NMI). For information or to be taken off this distribution, please email contact@grids-center.org.
 

1. Hot Off the Grid

GRIDS CENTER SOFTWARE SUITE UPDATED FOR NEW NSF MIDDLEWARE INITIATIVE RELEASE 3.0.  With the release of NMI-R3 on April 28, 2003, GRIDS has issued its third on-schedule version of the GRIDS Center Software Suite. The software serves as a stable foundation on which Grid implementers can build customized applications for science and engineering. New to the suite with NMI-R3 are a credential repository called MyProxy, a Grid tool based on the popular Message Passing Interface standard called MPICH-G2, and a tool for customizing GRIDS component configurations called GridConfig. They join existing GRIDS components like the Globus Toolkit™, Condor-G, Network Weather Service, Grid Packaging Tools and GSI-OpenSSH. See http://www.nsf-middleware.org/nmir3/.
 

GRID MIDDLEWARE AND "CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE." A blue ribbon panel recently reported to NSF on the emerging cyberinfrastructure. According to its chair, Dan Atkins of the University of Michigan (UM), "Grid middleware is a very critical component. NMI and GRIDS address important needs not just by providing stable tools, but also by defining processes for the collaborative development of software for science and engineering." Atkins said that the panel's 14 months of inquiry showed that prior ad hoc efforts to develop infrastructure had been in danger of becoming "balkanized," with many differing research communities developing independent -- and often incompatible -- solutions to similar problems of interoperability and resource sharing. "Now we are at an inflection point," he said, "where the emerging technology is helping users pull together the whole range of on-line resources so virtual communities can become real." Atkins is a professor of information and computer science at UM, and he served also as the founding dean of the university's School of Information. The panel's report is at http://www.cise.nsf.gov/evnt/reports/toc.htm.
 

2. Feature Story

SHAKING THINGS UP WITH NEESGRID:  GRIDS Center Software Suite is the foundation for customized applications of a widely distributed network for earthquake engineering and simulation.
By Tom Garritano, garritano@mcs.anl.gov.

One of the GRIDS Center's target communities is NEES, the George Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), NEES is a distributed virtual laboratory for earthquake experimentation and modeling. Its users are researchers who seek to design buildings and other structures that are more resistant to seismic events and disasters in general.

An ambitious aspect of NEES called NEESgrid is a networked infrastructure that facilitates integration of diverse systems such as instrumentation (including huge shake tables, centrifuges and tsunami wave tanks), computational resources and collaborative environments. Several principal investigators from the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI) GRIDS Center are also prominent members of the NEESgrid team. This overlap is helping to speed up progress by NEESgrid, which is building its applications on the GRIDS Center Software Suite (http://www.grids-center.org).

Because NEES and NEESgrid are scheduled to operate through 2014, they represent a long-term NSF commitment to using the Grid for earthquake engineering. GRIDS is also partnered with other NSF investments like the Grid Physics Network (GriPhyN) and TeraGrid to provide a stable substrate of middleware on which such communities can build custom applications. Collectively, they form the front line of "cyberinfrastructure" envisioned in the recent report (http://www.cise.nsf.gov/news/cybr/cybr.htm) of a blue-ribbon panel that advocates substantial new funding for NSF to stimulate projects across all science and engineering disciplines, with activities like NEES, GriPhyN and TeraGrid as models.

CAPTION:  Three shake tables at the University of Nevada Reno are used to investigate how this 40-percent scale model of a concrete slab-on-steel girder bridge responds to seismic stimuli. (Courtesy of Gokhan Pekcan, UNR.  See http://bric.ce.unr.edu/nees/.)

Three shake tables at the University of Nevada Reno are used to investigate how this 40-percent scale model of a concrete slab-on-steel girder bridge responds to seismic stimuli. (Courtesy of Gokhan Pekcan, UNR.  See http://bric.ce.unr.edu/nees/.)

Prior to the 2001 advent of NMI, research communities like NEES might have struggled to create their own separate IT infrastructures, with redundant efforts and a lack standardization. Through NMI, NSF funded the GRIDS Center to create a more uniform middleware infrastructure upon which communities can build their own applications, achieving efficiency and interoperability that wouldn't otherwise be possible. The GRIDS suite provides NEES with a long-term, sustainable base for the continued evolution of NEESgrid systems and software.

Building on GRIDS software, NEESgrid developed telepresence capabilities to permit remote observation and participation in experiments. This lets researchers view multiple data or video streams and interact with colleagues or equipment during real-time tests at multiple NEES equipment sites. NEES engineers will also have access to a repository of data from experiments and simulations, in addition to a simulation software repository.

Gokhan Pekcan is the researcher who worked most closely with the NEESgrid Systems Integration (SI) team as the initial NEESgrid software distribution was being developed. An earthquake engineer in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), he works with Ian Buckle, the university's principal investigator on NEES. With Oregon State University (OSU) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), UNR is an early adopter among the 15 NEES sites that are "Grid-enabling" their resources. They have deployed the NEESgrid Software Suite, including GRIDS components like the Globus Toolkit and Condor-G, as fundamental infrastructure for data acquisition, analysis and archiving.

"We are using the GRIDS distribution as the base of the NEESgrid software, and deployment has gone tremendously well," Pekcan said. "It was difficult at first because we weren't speaking the same language as the NEESgrid staff. Before NEES, none of the earthquake engineers was familiar with Grid concepts. But both sides were determined to communicate well, and that's what has happened."

They began by defining and acquiring the needed hardware and software components for NEESgrid. UNR's configuration, which Pekcan said is similar to other NEES sites, has two servers running RedHat Linux 7.3, with a third machine running Windows 2000 for data acquisition. Testing began in earnest with the first NMI and GRIDS release in mid-2002. Concurrently, UNR was installing its NEES-funded shake tables, which will eventually be accessible to remote users who will be able to conduct experiments, acquire data and interact with colleagues dispersed around the world -- all in real time

NEES is already doing Grid-enabled simulations, and they are working toward real-time remote collaboration via teleobservation, telepresence, shared data, test visualizations, system identification, and numerical computations. "We're laying groundwork for real-time manipulation of shake tables," Pekcan said, "This progress is relevant to NEES sites with large centrifuges and tsunami wave basins."


The GRIDS Center is working with NEESgrid, part of the George Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation. Funded by NSF, NEES is a distributed virtual laboratory for earthquake experimentation and modeling.

UNR's three shake tables are 14 by 14-foot biaxial platforms with intricate components pressurized up to 5,000 pounds per square inch. They have a combined payload capacity of 150 tons to test scale models of bridges and buildings -- even soil samples -- which are subjected to forces up to 1G in two directions simultaneously. Each table may operate independently, in-phase (i.e., with the other two combined to act as a single unit), or differentially with the other tables to simulate spatial variation effects of earthquakes.

A major challenge addressed by NEESgrid is the synchronization of experimental data and devices. NEES engineers envision having multiple sites run simultaneous experiments, each dependent on the other. Such dynamic circumstances mean devices will need to be synchronized at the millisecond level, which requires an extraordinarily efficient use of network and computational resources by the underlying middleware infrastructure.

UNR has been able to do most of its own Grid troubleshooting, Pekcan said, even without computer scientists on staff. Their campus IT support office has helped troubleshoot network problems, and on rare occasions when the NEES staff get stumped, he said, the UNR computer science faculty lend a hand.

Now that UNR and other early adopters have done some spade work, the remaining NEES sites will benefit from the lessons learned. "There is no doubt we are on target to meet our milestones," Pekcan said. "Progress is increasingly rapid as the September 2004 date for a fully operational 15-site NEESgrid approaches."

GRIDS principal investigators on the NEESgrid team are Ian Foster (University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory), Carl Kesselman (Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California) and Randy Butler (National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Besides those institutions, NEESgrid also includes the University of Michigan and University of Oklahoma.

In addition to UNR, OSU and RPI, the NEES equipment sites will include Brigham Young University, Cornell University, Lehigh University, State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, University of California campuses at Berkeley, Davis, Los Angeles and San Diego and University of Texas at Austin. See http://www.neesgrid.org.
 

3. What's Coming Up

Global Grid Forum 8
June 24-27, 2003

Seattle, WA
The Global Grid Forum will hold its eighth meeting, with a theme of "Building Grids -- Obstacles and Opportunities."  GGF8 will update global Grid practitioners, enthusiasts and researchers on the current state of Grid technology. The program will include esteemed keynote speakers, technology updates, application updates, industry updates and special Grid debate panels. See http://www.gridforum.org/meetings/ggf8/.
 

HPDC-12
June 22-24, 2003
Seattle, WA

The Twelfth IEEE International Symposium on High-Performance Distributed Computing will be a forum for presenting the latest research findings on the design and use of highly networked systems for computing, collaboration, data, analysis, and other innovative tasks.  HPDC provide a global meeting place for those interested in Grid computing. A joint program of tutorials and keynote talks will highlight major themes and recent developments in the field. See http://www-csag.ucsd.edu/HPDC-12/.

International School on Grid Computing
July 13-25, 2003
Vico Equense, Italy
Several GRIDS leaders are helping to organize the 2003 International School on Grid Computing, co-sponsored by the Global Grid Forum. The event will provide an in-depth introduction to Grid technologies and applications. Its curriculum will cover widely deployed Grid middleware (Globus Toolkit, Condor, Unicore), along with Grid services and data services. Lectures will focus on specialized topics such as applications and experiences with bringing up production Grids. Hands-on laboratory exercises will give participants practical experience with widely used Grid middleware. A testbed environment -- connected to major international science Grids -- will host widely used middleware produced by projects in the US, the EU, and in Asia Pacific (AP). Registration ends May 11. See http://www.dma.unina.it/~murli/SummerSchool/.

SC2003: Igniting Innovation
November 15-21, 2003
Phoenix, AZ

The SC conference marks its 15th year with SC2003. Thousands of high-performance computing and networking experts will see the latest technological tools, learn about new scientific applications, and listen to other experts present their most recent research. See http://www.sc-conference.org/sc2003/.

GlobusWORLD 2
January 19-23, 2004
San Francisco, CA

GlobusWORLD 2 will feature three tracks of invited speakers, lecturers, interactive panels, and forward-looking roundtables on Grid computing topics related to the Globus Toolkit. It follows the successful first GlobusWORLD held in January 2003, with over 450 attendees from 25 countries. Sees http://www.globusworld.org.
 

4. More about GRIDS

Part of the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI), GRIDS is a partnership of the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at the University of Southern California, the University of Chicago, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at University of California at San Diego, and the University of Wisconsin at Madison. For more information, see http://www.grids-center.org. To subscribe for GRIDS updates, send mail to majordomo@grids-center.org with a message body of "subscribe news" (without quotes). You will receive a confirmation message with simple instructions on how to authenticate your subscription.

November 4, 2002

The following news about distributed computing is from the Grid Research, Integration, Deployment and Support Center (GRIDS), part of the National Science Foundation Middleware Initiative (NMI).  Visit the GRIDS web at http://www.grids-center.org.  For information or to be taken off this distribution, please email contact@grids-center.org.  

1.  Hot Off the Grid

GRIDS CENTER SOFTWARE SUITE ADDS COMPONENTS FOR NMI-R2.  New software tools have been added to the GRIDS suite in NMI-R2, the second release from the National Science Foundation Middleware Initiative (NMI), which was issued on October 25.  GSI-SSH is a Grid security-enabled version of Open-SSH, the popular communications tool.  GPT (Grid Packaging Tool) is used to bundle GRIDS components, and GridConfig is used to configure and fine-tune them.  The latest GRIDS Center Software Suite includes new versions of the Globus Toolkit™, Condor-G and Network Weather Service.  Watch for new GRIDS releases as part of NMI every October and April.  See http://www.nsf-middleware.org/NMIR2 to download the software.  An NSF press release is at http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/pr0289.htm

GLOBUS WORLD IN JANUARY 2003 WILL GIVE USERS A VIEW "UNDER THE HOOD" OF GRID COMPUTING.  The inaugural Globus World will be held in San Diego, January 13-17.  It will feature three tracks of invited talks, interactive panels, and roundtables, with presenters including principal GRIDS Center participants.  Three tracks (Enterprise Planning for Grids,  Architecting Grids with Globus Toolkit, Developing & Administering Globus Toolkit) will offer strategic perspectives to facilitate discussions for enterprise planning and executive decision-making.  See http://www.globusworld.org.

2.  Feature Story

“KERBERIZED” GRID COMPUTING.  An important NMI goal is the integration of Grid research environments with the campus enterprise.  One example is KX.509, a client-side tool that extends the widely-used Kerberos campus authentication mechanism for use in Grids.

KX.509 has been packaged with the GRIDS Center Software Suite in both NMI releases (NMI-R1 and -R2). It was developed at the University of Michigan under the auspices of a partner NMI team, EDIT (Enterprise and Desktop Integration Technologies). The tool provides a bridge between Kerberos and the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) associated with Grid security. GRIDS Center leaders like Carl Kesselman believe KX.509 can play a crucial role in the adoption of Grids on campuses and in other organizations where Kerberos is used.

“This is a significant development,” said Kesselman, director of the Center for Grid Technologies at the University of Southern California (USC) Information Sciences Institute.  “We have successfully deployed KX.509 across the USC campus, which is a win for Grid users because it shows how their applications can be integrated with Kerberos infrastructure, and it’s a win for Kerberos sites because it shows they can be hospitable to Grids.”

Interoperability is key to Grids, whose architects are reluctant to dictate local choices for security, authorization and authentication.  Grids are designed to give individual users and sites autonomy, while helping to ensure that local choices can be based on a technology’s merit instead of its popularity elsewhere. 

The certificate and private key generated by KX.509 are normally stored in the same cache alongside the Kerberos credentials. This enables systems that already have a mechanism for removing unused Kerberos credentials to also automatically remove the X.509 credentials. Netscape or Internet Explorer can then load a special library to access and use these credentials for secure web activity.

To use KX.509, the user should be on a system in an existing Kerberos realm and have a Kerberos login for that domain.  In other words, Kerberos client software should already be installed, allowing KX.509 to generate a Grid certificate and private key based on the user’s Kerberos credentials. 

What is not required is the presence of X.509 certificates, the format used for Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) by software such as the Globus Toolkit and Condor-G.  KX.509 is able to generate a GSI certificate that, when used with either of those packages, can be fully recognized by any Grid server.

According to Jim Pepin, director of the Center for High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) at the University of Southern California, "We see USC’s successful campuswide implementation of Kerberized certificates with NMI as a first step toward KX.509's broader use for Grid environments both at USC and across the academic community."

Pepin pointed out that USC was situated to capitalize quickly on KX.509 because researchers like Kesselman have long been involved in helping to shape campus policy, something other universities can emulate. 

“This is the plumbing, and now we need to build ‘appliances’ that use this capability across campus,” he said.  “We’re a huge university with many pedagogical and research applications that could capitalize, including the Shoah Visual History Foundation’s multimedia database of testimony from Holocaust survivors, the Digital Encyclopedia of Los Angeles -- a collaboration with UCLA to digitize motion pictures and other artifacts --  and the Southern California Earthquake Center, part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering and Simulation (NEES).  Each of these projects and others are now much better positioned to deploy Grid tools thanks to our KX.509 deployment."

In non-Kerberos environments, to use Globus Toolkit utilities on a local or remote machine, the user must authenticate his or her identity to the machine with a Grid Security Infrastructure certificate, also called an X.509 certificate. These long-term certificates let the user create a short-term proxy certificate that expires after a period generally defined by the owner of the local or remote resource, after which a new proxy must be generated to renew access.

KX.509 can actually be used in place of permanent, long-term certificates. It does this by creating an certificate and private key in X.509 format based on the user’s existing Kerberos ticket. These credentials are then used to generate the GSI proxy certificate in Kerberos environments just as in the non-Kerberos example above.

See http://www.nsf-middleware.org/NMIR2 for more information.

3.  What's Coming Up

SC02:  From Terabytes to Insights
November 16-22, 2002
Baltimore, MD
SC2002 brings together scientists, engineers, systems administrators, programmers, and managers to share ideas and glimpse the future of high performance networking and computing, data analysis and management, visualization, and computational modeling. This year, SC will highlight how we can use our evolving cyberinfrastructure to tap into terabytes of data to gain insight into creating a world that is safer, healthier and better educated. The conference is sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society and by the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer Architecture.  Presenters include GRIDS Center principals.  See http://www.sc2002.org.

Globus World
January 13-17, 2003
San Diego, CA
The inaugural Globus World will feature three tracks of invited speakers, lecturers, interactive panels, and forward-looking roundtables.  (See item above under “Hot Off the Grid.)  Details at http://www.globusworld.org.

HPDC-12
June 22-24, 2003

Seattle, WA
Billed as "the leading technical conference on Grids and Distributed Computing."  HPDC has issued a call for papers with deadline of February 2003.  
 

4.  More about the GRIDS Center

Part of the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI), GRIDS is a partnership of the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at the University of Southern California, the University of Chicago, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at University of California at San Diego, and the University of Wisconsin at Madison.  For more information, see http://www.grids-center.org.  To subscribe for GRIDS updates, send mail to majordomo@grids-center.org with a message body of “subscribe news” (without quotes).  You will receive a confirmation message with simple instructions on how to authenticate your subscription.

 

July 8, 2002

The following news about distributed computing is from the Grid Research, Integration, Deployment and Support Center (GRIDS), part of the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI).

 1. Hot Off the Grid

NMI-R1 PRODUCTION RELEASE. Following weeks of beta testing, the official NSF Middleware Initiative Release 1 (NMI-R1) is now available at http://www.nsf-middleware.org/NMIR1/nmiR1.htm. The release has GRIDS software deliverables that together are expected to be used by large-scale distributed collaborations like the Grid Physics Network (GriPhyN) and the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES). In partnership with EDIT (also part of NMI), GRIDS is working with early adopters at ten testbed universities that will help integrate NMI-R1 with existing campus enterprise infrastructure.

GLOBUS TOOLKIT R&D 100 AWARD. One NMI-R1 component is the new recipient of an R&D 100 award, given annually by R&D Magazine to the 100 most significant technical products of the year. The Globus Toolkit ™ 2.0 earned this coveted award for becoming what The New York Times recently called "the de facto standard" for Grid computing. See http://www.grids-center.org/news_rd100.php for details.

2. Feature Story

GRID COMPUTING: NOT JUST FOR SUPERCOMPUTERS

The GRIDS Center has contributed core software to the initial NSF Middleware Initiative release (NMI-R1). The Globus Toolkit, Condor-G and Network Weather Service (NWS) combine to form a suite of Grid applications that are packaged together for easy installation, configuration and use. NMI-R1 is expected to become the standard distribution for these popular tools, upon which applications will be built by the TeraGrid, the International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory (IvDGL), the Grid Physics Network (GriPhyN), the Network for Earthquake Engineering and Simulation (NEES) and other large-scale, distributed projects.

But the scalability of GRIDS software means that users at all levels can benefit - you don't need access to a supercomputer. Today's desktop PC is more than the equal of a 1992 supercomputer. The availability of such affordable computing power can let scientists and engineers completely reconceptualize their research, taking advantage of distributed systems for resource sharing, collaboration and data management.

Built on the Internet and the World Wide Web, the Grid is a new class of infrastructure that provides scalable, secure, high-performance mechanisms for discovering and negotiating access to remote resources. Scientists are now sharing data and instrumentation on an unprecedented scale, and other geographically distributed groups are beginning to work together in ways that were previously impossible. Grids rely on Internet-based middleware - including NMI-R1 components like the Globus Toolkit, Condor-G and NWS - that provides standard protocols for access to on-line resources.

The GRIDS contributions to NMI-R1 share the following traits

  • Is primarily open-source, open-architecture software

  • Runs on Red Hat Linux 7.2 or Solaris 8.0

  • Uses Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI), based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

  • Together manage complementary requirements for sharing distributed resources

The Globus Toolkit (http//www.globus.org) is a community-based set of services and software libraries that supports Grids and Grid applications. The toolkit includes software for security, information infrastructure, resource management, data management, communication, fault detection and portability. Each component defines protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs), while providing open-source reference implementations in C and (for client-side APIs) in Java. Its components can be used separately or together to develop Grid applications.

Condor-G is a highly distributed batch system for job scheduling and resource management in multi-domain environments. Optimized to work with the Globus Toolkit's inter-domain protocols, Condor-G contributes its own intra-domain resource and job management methods to harness widely distributed resources as if they all belong to a single domain. The combined result is a full-featured front-end for computational Grids, letting the user manage thousands of jobs running at distributed sites. It provides job monitoring, logging, notification, policy enforcement, fault tolerance and credential management.

NWS monitors and dynamically forecasts performance of network and computational resources, using a distributed set of performance sensors (e.g., network monitors, CPU monitors) for instantaneous readings. The ability of its numerical models to predict conditions is analogous to weather forecasting - hence the name. When used with the Globus Toolkit and Condor-G, it lets dynamic schedulers provide statistical Quality-of-Service readings. NWS forecasts end-to-end TCP/IP performance (bandwidth and latency), available CPU percentage and available non-paged memory, automatically identifying the best technique to forecast any given resource.

NMI-R1 also includes a tool called KX.509 from the University of Michigan. It allows Kerberos sites to interact with Grids by converting a user's credentials from Kerberos to PEM, the format used by the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI).

NMI-enabled Grid environments certainly provide high performance, but that doesn't mean they require high-performance computers. Although GRIDS software was developed for high-performance computing, it will work just as well using commodity desktop PCs. For that matter, today's supercomputers in fact consist of many such off-the-shelf PCs - albeit numbering in the thousands - that are configured in clusters that use Grid software to work in concert. NSF's latest such system is known as the TeraGrid, and it will be located at four separate sites (two each in Illinois and California) connected by a 40 gigabit-per-second network.

But don't wait for 2012 and your own terascale desktop PC. Get started now with NMI-R1 at http://www.nsf-middleware.org. You might be surprised how straight-forward it is to install, configure and run your own Grid. See the Grid Computing Primer for examples of applications, with links to project web sites.
 

3. What's Coming Up

Global Grid Forum 5
July 21-24, 2002
Edinburgh, Scotland

Global Grid Forum 5 (July 21-24) will be held in conjunction with IEEE's High Performance Distributed Computing Symposium-11 (July 24-26) at the Edinburgh International Conference Center (EICC) in Edinburgh, Scotland. Over 500 participants are already registered to join the activities. Advance registration for the conference -- which will include a talk by NMI program director Alan Blatecky of NSF -- is available through July 10 at http://www.gridforum.org/Meetings/GGF5/Default.htm.

GGF is a community-initiated forum of individual researchers and practitioners working on distributed technologies for "Grid" computing. GGF provides working sessions for Working Groups and Research Groups, as well as general information and education for those who wish to "brush up" on what is happening with Grid technologies, applications and initiatives. The organization resulted from a merger of the Grid Forum, the eGrid European Grid Forum, and the Asia-Pacific Grid community.

SC02 From Terabytes to Insights
November 16-22, 2002
Baltimore, MD

SC2002 brings together scientists, engineers, systems administrators, programmers, and managers to share ideas and glimpse the future of high performance networking and computing, data analysis and management, visualization, and computational modeling. This year, SC will highlight how we can use our evolving cyberinfrastructure to tap into terabytes of data to gain insight into creating a world that is safer, healthier and better educated. The conference is sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society and by the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer Architecture. See http://www.sc-conference.org/sc2002.
 

4. More about GRIDS

GRIDS is part of the NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI).  NMI maintains a number of e-mail discussion lists to facilitate communication communities. See http://www.nsf-middleware.org/participate.htm for details.



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